1 Ceballos-Lascuráin, H. (1996) Tourism, ecotourism and protected areas: The state of nature-based tourism around the world and guidelines for its development. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland, and Cambridge UK.
2 Font, X., Cochrane, J. and Tapper, R. (2004).Pay per view: understanding tourism revenues for effective management plans, Report for the WWF by Leeds Tourism Group and The Environmental Business Development Group, Leeds.
4 UNEP and UNWTO. (2005) Making Tourism More Sustainable, A Guide for Policy Makers, Madrid, Spain, see http://sdt.unwto.org/content/about-us-5
5 Using Google, Google Scholar, ResearchGate and social media
6 Leung, Y-F., et al (2018) op. cit.; Nielsen, H. and Spenceley, A. (2011). ‘The Success of Tourism in Rwanda: Gorillas and More’. In: P. Chunhjan-Pole and M. Angwafo (eds.), Yes Africa Can: Success Stories from a Dynamic Continent, pp. 231–249. Washington, DC: World Bank. http://siteresources.worldbank.org/AFRICAEXT/Resources/258643-1271798012256/YAC_Consolidated_Web.pdf
7 World Bank Group (2017) Ramping up nature-based tourism to protect Biodiversity and Boost Livelihoods, Feature Story, http://www.worldbank.org/en/news/feature/2017/05/22/ramping-up-nature-based-tourism-to-protect-biodiversity-and-boost-livelihoods
9 World Bank Group (2017) op. cit.
10 World Bank Group (2017) op. cit.
11 World Bank Group (2017) Ramping up nature-based tourism to protect Biodiversity and Boost Livelihoods, Feature Story, http://www.worldbank.org/en/news/feature/2017/05/22/ramping-up-nature-based-tourism-to-protect-biodiversity-and-boost-livelihoods
12 World Bank Group (2015) Harnessing the Potential of Nature-Based Tourism for Poverty Reduction, http://pubdocs.worldbank.org/en/137751449520243805/ENR-2015-Nature-Based-Tourism.pdf
13 UNWTO (2017) Tourism and the Sustainable Development Goals – Journey to 2030, Highlights
14 UNWTO (2017) op. cit.
15 CBD (2010) Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 and the Aichi Targets. <https://www.cbd.int/doc/strategic-plan/2011-2020/Aichi-Targets-EN.pdf>. Accessed 15 February 2017. and Leung, Y-F., Spenceley, A., Hvenegaard, G., and Buckley, R. (2018) Tourism and visitor management in protected areas: Guidelines for sustainability, Best Practice Protected Area Guideline Series, IUCN, Geneva.
16 Twining-Ward, L., Li, W., Bhammar, H., and Wright, E. (2018) Supporting sustainable livelihoods through wildlife tourism, World Bank
17 Spenceley, A. and Manning, T. (2013) Ecotourism: planning for rural development in developing nations, In Ballantyne, R. and Packer, J. (eds) The International Handbook on Ecotourism
18 Sandwith, T. (2019) Getting priorities right for tourism and protected areas, IUCN, https://www.iucn.org/news/protected-areas/201904/getting-priorities-right-tourism-and-protected-areas?utm_campaign=2351489_Protecting%20the%20Planet%20Staff%20copy%20Claire%20march%202019&utm_medium=email&utm_source=IUCN&dm_i=2GI3,1EEF5,41ZGKZ,4ML4L,1
19 UNWTO (2019) Baseline Report on the Integration of Sustainable Consumption and Production Patterns into Tourism Policies, UN World Tourism Organization, Madrid
20 Spenceley, A. and Manning, T. (2013) Ecotourism: planning for rural development in developing nations, In Ballantyne, R. and Packer, J. (eds) The International Handbook on Ecotourism, chapter 23
21 Spenceley, A., Snyman, S. and Eagles, P. (2017) op. cit.
22 Note though that this appears to have stalled.
24 This tool was developed by Delano Caras, and has been modified by World Bank Consultant Peter John Massyn and others for application in destination including South Africa (Madikwe and iSimangaliso) and in Rwanda (Nyungwe).
26 Font et al (2004). Op. cit.
27 Leung et al, (2018) op. cit.
29 Leung et al, (2018) op. cit
31 Koontz, A. (2008) The Conservation Marketing Equation: A manual for conservation and development professionals. EnterpriseWorks/VITA, USAID
32 e. g. Daly, N. (2019) The hidden cost of wildlife tourism , National Geographic, June 2019 issue, https://www.nationalgeographic.com/magazine/2019/06/global-wildlife-tourism-social-media-causes-animal-suffering/ and Tourism concern (2017) Animals in tourism, Tourism concern, https://www.travindy.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/02/Animals-in-Tourism-lWeb-FINAL-1.pdf
33 e.g. Moorhouse, T. P., Dahlsjö, C. A., Baker, S. E., D’Cruze, N. C., & Macdonald, D. W. (2015). The customer isn’t always right—conservation and animal welfare implications of the increasing demand for wildlife tourism. PloS One, 10(10), e0138939.; Moorhouse, T., D’Cruze, N. C., & Macdonald, D. W. (2017). Unethical use of wildlife in tourism: what’s the problem, who is responsible, and what can be done?. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 25(4), 505-516; Rizzolo, J. B., & Bradshaw, G. A. (2018). Human leisure/elephant breakdown: Impacts of tourism on Asian elephants. In Wild Animals and Leisure (pp. 129-147). Routledge.
34 Adapted from Leung et al, (2018) op. cit.
35 Adapted from Leung et al, (2018) op. cit.
36 Mitchell, J. Keane, J. and Laidlaw, J. (2009) Making success work for the poor: Package tourism in Northern Tanzania, ODI and SNV, https://www.odi.org/sites/odi.org.uk/files/odi-assets/publications-opinion-files/4203.pdf
37 Adapted from Leung et al, (2018) op. cit.
38 Spenceley, A. (2008) Impacts of wildlife tourism on rural livelihoods in southern Africa, In Spenceley, A. (ed) Responsible Tourism: Critical issues for conservation and development, Earthscan: London & Sterling VA, © IUCN, pp159-186
39 Spenceley, A. (2008) Local impacts of community-based tourism in southern Africa, In Spenceley, A. (ed) Responsible Tourism: Critical issues for conservation and development, Earthscan: London & Sterling VA, © IUCN, pp 285-303
40 Spenceley, A., Nevill, H., Coelho, C. F., and Souto, M. (2016) An introduction to tourism concessioning: 14 Characteristics of successful programs, World Bank Group
41 Spenceley, A. (2004) Managing sustainable nature-based tourism in Southern Africa: A practical assessment tool, Doctoral thesis, University of Greenwich, UK
43 Honey, M. & Rome, A. (2001). Protecting paradise: Certification programs for sustainable tourism and ecotourism . October. Washington, DC: Institute for Policy Studies.; Dodds, R. & Joppe, M. (2005), CSR in the tourism industry? The status of and potential for certification, codes of conduct and guidelines. Study prepared for the CSR Practice Foreign Investment Advisory Service Investment Climate Department, June.
44 Black, R. and Crabtree, A. (2007). Quality assurance and certification in tourism. CABI: Oxfordshire, UK.
45 This list does not include private sector businesses nor donor organisations.
47 This tool was developed by Delano Caras, and has been modified by World Bank Consultant Peter John Massyn and others for application in destination including South Africa (Madikwe and iSimangaliso) and in Rwanda (Nyungwe).