The Nature-Based Tourism (NBT) Community of Practice (CoP) was launched in December 2017 as an internal World Bank Group (WBG) community, whose focus is to help develop the NBT agenda within the Environment and Natural Resources (ENR) Global Practice. Under the guidance of ENR leadership team and with the active support of the core advisory group, the NBT CoP has facilitated collaboration and learning through a mix of products and services. The NBT CoP has commissioned a comprehensive review of the tools and knowledge resources that could be used by WBG staff to help them prepare and implement better projects. By providing this review of tools and resources, the NBT CoP will help project teams ensure that project activities meet the quality standards and safety guidelines needed to establish NBT activities in country.
Nature-based tourism (NBT) describes all forms of tourism that use natural resources , in a wild or undeveloped form . NBT is motivated by enjoying wildlife or undeveloped natural areas and may incorporate natural attractions including scenery, topography, waterways, vegetation, wildlife, and cultural heritage, and activities like hunting or white-water rafting. 1 There are a number of different terms used to describe NBT, which include ecotourism, wildlife tourism and geotourism (see Table 1 ). Successful NBT requires the ability to develop and market tourism products based on what the protected area has to offer, and the ability to maintain the quality of these areas for ongoing future use. The tourism potential of any protected area depends on a variety of factors, including location, accessibility, market demand, proximity to other popular tourism destinations, marketing, presence of local tourism businesses and infrastructure (e.g. accommodation, catering, guiding, etc.) 2 .
Table 1: Nature-based tourism terms and definitions
|Nature based tourism
|Forms of tourism that use natural resources in a wild or undeveloped form. Nature-based tourism is travel for the purpose of enjoying undeveloped natural areas or wildlife.
|Responsible travel to natural areas that conserves the environment, socially and economically sustains the well-being of the local people, and creates knowledge and understanding through interpretation and education.
|A form of nature-based tourism that includes the consumptive and non-consumptive use of wild animals in natural areas. Wildlife tourism is centered around the observation and interaction with local animal and plant life in their natural habitats, as with safari tourism.
|Geotourism is defined as tourism that sustains or enhances the distinctive geographical character of a place—its environment, heritage, aesthetics, culture, and the well-being of its residents.
The World Bank Group further emphasises that NBT should contribute to poverty reduction and promote environmental sustainability. 3 The UN World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) definition of sustainable tourism is: “Tourism that takes full account of its current and future economic, social and environmental impacts, addressing the needs of visitors, the industry, the environment and host communities.” 4 The types of NBT topics explored relate to the range of issues that practitioners need to draw on during the design or implementation of projects and programs (see Table 2 ).
Table 2: Scope of nature-based tourism tools and resources
|Types of tools and resources
Community engagement and livelihoods
Ecological impacts on natural habitats and wildlife,
Energy use and greenhouse gas emissions
Value chains and supply chains, conservation finance
Codes of conduct
Certification systems for protected areas and tourism service providers, including:
Toolkits and ‘how to’ tools:
Training and capacity building resources:
Institutions offering support services/tools/resources on NBT
Where possible, the materials sought were easily accessible (e.g. Open Source), and available for free or at low cost (e.g. less than USD 100). Completed materials, and also those in development stages, were also identified. Materials in English were sought, but those identified in other languages were also collected.
The intended audience for this report and collated resources are:
This analysis was prepared through a combination of an internet-based literature review and stakeholder consultation. The consultation included an online questionnaire (see Annex 1 for questionnaire), which received 112 responses from practitioners in the field. A list of the consultees who participated can be found in Annex 2). In all, over 360 resources were identified during this process.